What is Soil Pollution and Sources of Soil Pollution

Here you will get to know the definition of soil pollution, sources of soil pollution, types of soil pollution, causes of soil pollution, effects of soil pollution, and measures to control soil pollution.

What is the definition of Soil Pollution 

Soil Pollution
 Definition of pollution, "an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of the land that affects humans and plants or that destroys the natural properties and utility of the land is called soil pollution."

 Soil pollution is mostly caused by air, water, fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide. The air's so2 gas reacts with rainwater to form H2SO4, which is added to the soil.

Similarly, in order to get maximum production from the soil, using the maximum amount of chemicals like fertilizers, fertilizers, mites, insecticides, etc., together with the soil produces harmful effects.  Due to which the soil gets polluted.

The population of the country is increasing at a very rapid pace. The production of food grains is not increasing at such a rapid pace, due to which more food grains will be needed in the future. It will be necessary to increase production to meet the increased food problem for the rapidly growing population.

What is the condition of Soil Pollution in India 

Soil Pollution in India
About 80% of the population of our country lives in villages where there is no system of human sewage, which is the major source of diseases and diseases. This is the reason why most people in the country suffer from various types of diseases.  

The urban population of our country is around 120 million, with the amount of solid waste generated by 20 million tonnes per year.
According to this figure, the total solid waste generated in the entire country is very high. 

According to a survey, only in the city of Bombay, 4 thousand tons of garbage - garbage is released every day, 750 vehicles are engaged for disposal. Thus, how much is to be spent daily for disposal of garbage.

What are the Sources of Soil Pollution 

 Soil pollution is mainly due to solid, waste problems, but under the larger approach, changes in basic properties of soil due to humanized and natural processes are also included; Such as soil erosion, volcanoes, soil excavation, and chemical pollution by various means of soil, etc.

Thus various means of soil pollution can be placed in the following parts.
 (1) Domestic wastes,
 (2) Municipal wastes,
 (3) Industrial wastes,
 (4) Agricultural wastes
 (5) Other sources

Types of Soil Pollution 

 Soil pollution can be divided into the following three parts
 (1) Chemical pollution
 (2) Biological pollution
 (3) Radioactive pollution,

( 1 ) Chemical pollution 

 Nowadays more intensive agriculture is needed for the food of the growing population, for which the use of fertilizers, insecticides, etc. chemicals in large quantities is increasing day by day.

 In addition to this, many types of waste from industries, hard and waste chemicals released from cities and villages continue to reach the soil, which causes pollution of the soil.  
Chemical pollution of soil can be divided into the following parts.

A ) High toxic 

 Chemical compounds that are highly toxic and have a long-lasting effect. Therefore, they should be used very carefully. This is the reason why all these chemicals are used only in unusual circumstances.
 Ex - aldrin, dieldrin, arsenic, lead, compounds, etc. 

B ) Low toxic 

 All such chemical compounds fall into this category which is often less toxic. This is why they are commonly used in all situations.  
According to the experiment and effect, this category of chemical compounds is divided into two parts, such chemical compounds that are used in small amounts are less toxic. They are less harmful when used in very small amounts.
 Ex - DDT, Mercury, and lead compounds, etc.

( 2 ) Biological pollution 

( A ) Disease producing bacteria 

 The origin of the bacteria causing the disease, the human bacteria originating from the urine, urine again reaches the human body from the soil and cause disease.

( B ) Disease producing bacteria of domestic animals 

These microorganisms originate from the feces and urine of organisms and animals. These bacteria enter the human body with milk, meat, or food and thus they are helpful in causing disease in the human body.

 ( C ) Self-borne bacteria present in the soil

 The soil itself is a vast habitat of microorganisms in which many types of disease-causing bacteria are found. The soil gets polluted due to the presence of these bacteria.

( D ) Intestinal bacteria and protozoa 

These are bacteria that get into the soil by bowel movement in the open and pollute the soil. These bacteria enter humans through crops and animals and cause diseases.

In this way, the major pollutants of biological pollution of the soil - dog and cat hookworms, larvae, eggs and larvae of parasitic insects, intestinal bacteria, fungal bacteria, tetanus germs, fauna, venom, and spores which are used in humans, pigs, cows, buffalo,  Stools of the horse, goat, sheep, poultry, pigeon, etc. are found in urine, etc. which grow, develop on the organic matter of the soil.

( 3 )  Radioactive pollution 

Radioactive materials that are obtained from nuclear explosions, nuclear reactors, radioactive laboratories, nuclear explosions, nuclear furnaces, etc. are extremely harmful and pollute the soil.

The radioactive material destroys vegetation or reaches microscopic quantities of animals and humans through vegetation, thereby destroying their metabolic activities. Due to these substances, mutations arise in humans and animals.

These substances cause terrible diseases like cancer.  Children born from their effects become diseased and crippled. There are many types of radioactive substances. But of these, Strontium - 90 and Segium - 137, which have more half-life (hall life period 28 years), are more harmful.

Causes of Soil Pollution 

 In short, soil pollution has the following causes

1. Indiscriminate and improper use of agricultural chemicals.
2. By waste and waste from factories and factories.
3. By dead carcasses.
4. By putting the houses dirty in the fields.
5. Stool - urine and dirty water.
6. Due to a lack of proper drainage system.  
7. From digging and construction work of mines.
8. By radioactive materials.

Effects of soil pollution and Means to Control soil pollution

Soil is an important natural resource. It has importance in various forms. Therefore, it is necessary that the soil is protected from contamination, and the contaminated soil is repaired. The following measures can be used to control soil pollution.

(1) Different types of waste materials should be disposed of properly. Wastes should not be thrown arbitrarily.

(2) Polluted water discharged into the soil should be made harmful by chemical methods.

(3) Industrial institutions should be prevented from discharging their waste materials without proper treatment and proper arrangement of deposits.

(4) Citizens should not throw garbage in their houses on the same road but should be put in the garbage vessel prescribed for it. It is advisable to dispose of waste from villages in manure pits.

(5) The various chemicals used for agriculture should be of such an ideal level that they should be completely decomposed under the soil. They should be used as far as possible. The use of chemicals that cause harmful effects in the soil should be stopped. 

(6) The discharge of urban waste materials should be away from the city in such a way that it does not cause soil pollution. For this, a plant should be set up for composting.

(7) Municipal corporations and municipal officials should give priority to waste disposal. The management of waste collection, removal, and disposal should be streamlined.

(8) Citizens should not go to open places for defecation. For that, easy toilets and flush type toilets should be arranged.

(9) In order to reduce soil pollution, inappropriate activities of humans and animals should be banned.

(10) Emphasis should be laid on measures to reduce the degradation caused by land excavation and soil erosion.


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