Soil Water definition and classification

What is Soil Water and what you mean by soil water?

Its volume in different types of soils is up to 5-25%. Its volume is found in 5–10% in air-dry soils
What is Soil Water

Water is received by the soil through rain or irrigation and the water is present as hygroscopic, capillary, and gravitational water. Different types of nutrients dissolve in soil water and form a soil solution. 

Carbon dioxide released in the respiratory process dissolves in soil water to form carbonic acid (HCOOH). It is a weak acid and is helpful in providing nutrients to the plants.

A. Classification of Soil Water 

 Soil water is mainly divided into three parts based on the water holding capacity of the soil. This is called the physical classification of soil water.

(1) hydrothermal water
(2) capillary water
(3) gravity water

 There are two more forms of soil water which are as follows,
 (1) crystallization water
 (2) Soil water 

( 1 )  What is Hygroscopic water

 Water that is held by soil particles due to the dipole configuration of water molecules is called hydrometrical water.

 This water is present in the form of a fine layer on the soil particles, which is 8–12 Å in thickness. 8-10 layers of water molecules are found in this fine water layer. 

Hygienic water on soil particles is combined with extreme solidity at high pressure. The lower layer of water is held on the PF-7 and the outer surface 31, atmospheres on the solid-liquid intercalary.

 Hygienic water is so strongly held on soil colloidal particles that it is very difficult to separate. This is why neither plants nor bacteria are able to use it. A small amount of this water can be dissolved when the soil particles are heated at 110 ° C for about 8-10 hours.

The amount of water to be grown is based on the following factors 

(1) Kanakara, (2) Clay (Marika) type, (3) Nature of adsorbed cations, (4) Quantity of organic matter, (5) Humidity, (6) Heat.

 ( 2 )  What is Capillary water

 The water that is found between the humidity and gravity water or between the humidity coefficient and area hold is called capillary water. 

In the soil, this water is held at a stress of 31 to 1/3 atmospheres. This water, being available in a fluid state, can move in almost all directions.

 The internal capillary water, which is held by 15 to 31 atmospheres (4.2 - 4.5 PF), moves with great difficulty. 

This is the reason that the internal capillary water is able to use the crops with great difficulty and the plants start to wither which we call Fade point. I

ts value is 15 atmospheres (4.2 PF). In this way, capillary water held by 1/3 to 15 atmospheres tension has a smooth movement, and plants can ingest easily.

 This water is very beneficial for the plants because this water dissolves all the nutrients of the plants in themselves. This is why it is found as a solution.

 Factors affecting capillary water content.


(1) Kanakara, (2) Structure, (3) Presence of organic materials, (4) Page stress.

 ( 3 ) What is Gravitational water

Water that is held by soil particles with a stress force less than 1/3 of the atmospheres and starts to flow down due to the gravitational force of the earth in the soils of the soil is called gravitational water.

It begins to flow down into the ground by the force of gravity and is therefore inaccessible to plants. Since this water moves freely in long pockets of soils, it is also known as free water.

Soil air is removed from the saturated pore of gravity water, blocking air movement and the roots are unable to respire due to lack of oxygen, which causes the plant to die. 

Even O2, which is required for microorganisms, is not available, so their growth and development stop. 

Due to biochemical reactions and adverse effects on the respiratory process, the production capacity of crops is reduced by the force of gravity.


Factors affecting the amount of gravity water.

(1) Kanakara, (2) Soil composition, (3) Presence of organic materials.
This water is easily circulated in soils with large particles and its circulation is less in soils with finer particles.

B. Description of soil water required for plant growth and its description.

All the water present in the soil is found in inaccessible and inaccessible conditions for the plants. 

The form of soil water that is easily ingested by plants is beneficial for plant growth. 

If the three forms of soil water are studied, it is known that due to the stress force of hydromagnetic water 31–00 atmospheres, it is very strongly held by the soil particles and is not available to the plants, that is, inaccessible water. 

Similarly, gravitational water ie gravity water 1/3 atmospheres can move so easily due to the tension force that the earth is attracted downward by the gravitational force and leaks down the roots of the plant. It becomes out of reach.

Biological Classification of Soil Water -

  Not all forms of soil water are available to plants. Thus depending on the availability of water by the plants, it can be divided into the following parts.

( 1 ) Excess water 

 Water available above the field capacity in the soil, which flows or gets separated by the force of gravity is called 'excess water'. 

It is harmful to plants or for crop production because the difficulties arising from its absence in its presence are manifested.

 ( 2 ) Water Receivable 

 The water present between the friction coefficient and the field potential which is easily ingested by the plants is called Receivable water, under which capillary water comes.

(3) Unreachable water 

 The water which is firmly affixed to the particles at the top of the permanent soil point of the soil and the plants are unable to use it is called inaccessible water.

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