Major disease of Cotton and its cause

Major diseases of cotton that cause a lot of damage

1. Wilt disease of cotton
2. Anthracnose of Cotton
3.Angular Leaf Spot or Black Arm of Cotton
Disease of cotton

1.Wilt disease of Cotton ( कपास की ग्लानि या मुरझान )

   It is a major disease of cotton.  There is a lot of loss in the heavy black soil of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.  In 1951, a loss of Rs 68,00,000 was caused by this disease.  

Causal agent 
The disease is caused by a fungus called Fusarium oxysporum F. vasinfactum

Symptoms of wilt disease of cotton

The first symptoms of the disease appear on the seedlings, whose cotyledons turn yellow and brown and a brown ring is formed on the petiole.  

Soon Bijankur dies and dies.  If the infection occurs later on the plants, then their lower leaves first and then the top leaves begin to wilt and dry up.  Sometimes, there is a complete dissection of plants and only the naked trunks are left standing in the field.  The fungus causing this disease is soil and seed.

 1. In the field, the diseased plants should be uprooted and burnt.

 2. The disease is also rarely produced by four or five-year crop cycle.  Summer deep plowing of the field also helps in disease control. 

 3.  Sowing of cotton mixed with moth has little effect on the disease.

  4.  The disease is also produced less by giving a higher quantity of potash with a balanced amount of nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers in the field.  Cotton, which is used as a soil reformer, also causes indigestion in cotton.

  5.  Always the anti-disease varieties of cotton such as Suyog, Vijaya, Kalyan, Digvijay, Jayadhar, Vizalpa, Vinnar, Jarilla, Jayvant, etc. should be sown.

 2 .  Anthracnose disease of Cotton(कपास का श्यामव्रण या एंथ्रेक्नोज)

 This disease is one of the major diseases of cotton.  This disease is also known as plant wort and gular thawing. 

Casual Agent
 The disease is caused by a fungus called Colletotrichum indicum.  

Symptoms of Anthracnose disease of cotton

Symptoms of the disease first appear as small, discolored spots on the cotyledons.  Later on the stem, brown watercourses, long deformed.  In the acute stage of the disease, it surrounds the deformed stem and the seedling dies.  The fungus causing this disease is of both seed and soil type.

 1.  Always certified disease-free seeds should be sown.

 2.  Cotton seeds should be soaked for 5-7 minutes in concentrated sulfuric acid and washed with clean water several times before sowing.
  After this, seeds should be treated in 0.2 percent solution of organic fungicides such as Serensan Bet.

 3.  Patient plant residues should be carefully collected and burnt in the field.

  3.  Angular Leaf Spot or Black Arm disease of Cotton (कपास का कोणीय पर्णदाग या कृष्णशाख रोग)

  This is a very destructive bacterial disease of cotton, which is also known as bacterial angina.  In general, the disease is found on cotton crops in all the major cotton-growing states of India like Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh, etc.  

Casual Agent
This disease produces a bacterium called Xanthomonas malvacearum.  

Symptoms of Angular leaf spot of cotton

Symptoms of the disease appear on all aerial parts of the plant.  The first disease symptoms appear as small, round, spots on the cotyledons or seedlings of the plant, which later grow to the irregular shape and brown color.  

In the acute stage of the disease, the seed masses wither and wither.  
On the leaves of the plants, small hydrostatic spots are also formed which later grow into angular shape and change from dark brown to black color and their edges are indigo-colored. 

 Many spots on the leaves are mixed together and the entire leaf dies yellow and later dries and falls down.  The viscous bacterial secretion on the lower surface of the leaf appears as a crust.  

The bacterium causing this disease is of both seed and soil type.  The bacterium also survives on some forest aged serpents.

  1.  The residue of plants and host plants should be uprooted and destroyed.

  2.  Various traction activities such as late sowing, harvest cycle, well-harvesting, use of potash-containing fertilizer and early irrigation, etc. are also helpful in disease control.  

3. Bacterial anti-bacterial varieties of cotton such as - B.J.  Bar 0, B.J.A.- 562, N.B.  Only G - 9, Type - 128, etc. should be sown.

Read more - plant disease and causal agent


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