Wheat disease and their causal organisms

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 Wheat disease and their causal Agent


1. Wheat Kitt or rust of wheat disease
(i) Black or Stem rust
(ii) brown or leaf rust
(iii) Yellow or Striped rust
2. Loose Smut of Wheat disease
3. Hill Bunt of Wheat disease
4. Karnal Bunt of Wheat disease
5. Alternaria Leaf Blight  of Wheat disease
6. Powdery Mildew  of Wheat disease
7. Eur Cockle of Wheat disease
8. Tandu or Yellow Ear Rot of Wheat disease

1. Wheat Kitt or rust of wheat diseaseWheat disease

(Rusts disease of Wheat)
 These diseases are also called as Gerui or Harda.  The loss of about 4 crores per annum has been estimated by all three rust of wheat disease in India.  In the years of rust epidemic, this loss reaches more than Rs 50 crore. 

 In 1947, black rust of wheat disease was generated in a plant epidemic in Madhya Pradesh and adjoining states, due to which about 2 million tonnes of wheat disease was destroyed and famine occurred.

Similarly, in 1971 - 72, wheat disease brown rust in Western, India was generated and about 10 lakh tonnes of wheat disease was destroyed.

 In the next season, this disease arose in the pandemic form in the mid-March in the middle of March in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh and it failed completely welfare gold by giving high yielding wheat disease of 'Green Revolution'.

However, the introduction of new dwarf Mexican varieties of wheat disease in India is now reducing losses by rust diseases, as rust has less effect on them than older varieties. 

 But there is no doubt that even in these varieties, wheat loss by 8 to 10 percent is lost by the rust, which is worth about 40 crores.  These rust are of the following three types:

 ( i ) Black or Stem Rust of Wheat disease

  This disease is found in India on the wheat crops at an altitude of up to 10,000 feet on plains and mountains.  In northern India, it is produced in March and in southern India in November - December.

 Casual organism or Disease factor

This rust produces fungi called Puccinia graminis var. tritici

 Symptoms of black rust of Wheat disease

 Early symptoms of this disease appear as small brown spots or pustules on the stem, rheumatism, foliage, lower surface of the leaves and stalks. 

Gradually, these spheres become dark brown in the form of large lesions, and finally, they become black in color.  It is called black colored sputum. 

 Plants suffering from this disease decrease in height and leaves are also reduced and grains in earrings become shrunken and light in weight.

  In the acute stage of the disease, grains do not form in the earrings and the husk also becomes brittle after drying.

( ii )  Brown or Leaf Rust of Wheat disease


 Casual organism or Disease Factor

  It is caused by the fungus Puccinia recondita.  In northern and eastern India, this rust appears in the month of January.

 Symptoms of brown rust of wheat disease

 The first symptoms of this disease appear in the form of very small, circular, light orange-colored ureidinoides scattered irregularly on the surface of the leaves.  

Initially, this uredinophyte forms on the upper surface of the leaf and later on both surfaces and turns brown when mature.  Sometimes it also forms on the foliage and stem.

 Initially, they are covered with the epidermis of the leaf, which soon bursts and the uredinobioblasts disintegrate into the atmosphere as a brown powder.

 At the end of the disease, tilium or heterotrophs are formed, which can develop into uredinophytes.  Trilliums are small, oval to linear, straight brown or black in color, and covered with epidermis.

 The death of infected plants occurs before they mature and due to hindering photosynthesis, the grains in the earrings become small and contracted.  

In the event of a severe outbreak of the disease, the plants remain half in size and their root system is not developed.


( iii ) Yellow or Stripe Rust of wheat disease


 Casual organism or Disease Factor

The disease is caused by a fungus called Puccinia striiformis.

 Symptoms of yellow rust of wheat disease

In the beginning, it attacks the leaves, but later on the Vritta, Tushanipatra, Foliage, Sinkur, and grains.  

Small, oval, bright yellow-colored uredinioides are formed on the leaves such as pinheads, which form lines in the middle of the leaf veins.

Later, below the leaf epidermis, the mandibles are formed in blackened talium lines or broad columns, which are always covered by a flat black crust. 

 Leaves of diseased plants ripen quickly and their root system remains underdeveloped, as excessive infection on the leaves hinders the transfer of food they make.

 Management:
1. All three wheat rust diseases can be prevented by spraying fungicides such as Dithane Z-78, Dithane M-45 or Dithane S-31.  2.5 kg of these fungicides are dissolved in 1000 liters of water and sprayed 3 to 5 per hectare.  

All-round fungicide RH124 (RH-124) can be controlled once in the soil by irrigation water or by spraying 300mL (active ingredient) / hectare on the crop, while brown rust of wheat can be controlled. 

 And by spraying one or two of 1 kg (active ingredient) / ha, yellow rust can be prevented by Pyracarboild.

2. The most beneficial and practical method of controlling rust diseases is to grow anti-disease varieties.  Sonalika variety of wheat is resistant to brown or leaf rust. 

 Varieties such as S0331, white Lerma, and Lerma Rojo are recommended for the peninsula and central India, where black rust is the main problem.

  A Tribune wheat variety HD 1941 is also anti-disease and has an average yield of 5-8 tonnes per hectare.

 Some other improved varieties of wheat such as - 

Sujata, Malvika, Arjun or HD2009 (Arjun or HD 2009), HD 2122, HD 2135, HD 2160, HD 2177, HD 1999, HD 2204, HD 4530, HD 4502, UP 301, U.P. 310, U.P. 319, K. 7410, H.U.W. 12, I.P.W. 77, HW 657, VL 421, WL 1562, WL 711, DWL 5023, Malaviya Wheat 55, KSML 3, etc. are anti-pathogenic for all three rust.

3. If the wheat crop is sown in combination with other suitable crops, the effect of the disease is reduced to some extent, because by doing this, the number of spores decreases as the pathogen surface area is reduced for the rust.

In this way, the spread of disease is reduced due to a decrease in investment for the second infection.

  4. Sowing of wheat early reduces the attack of the rust on the crop, because the crop is ripe by the time of the rust attack and the plants are also very strong to resist infection by that time.

5. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers increase the susceptibility to rust in plants, while potash has the opposite effect.  

If the nitrogen-phosphorus-potash ratio (N, P. K) ratio of the wheat-bearing cultivar variety is reduced by some nitrogen, the effect of the rust is reduced.

  2. Loose Smut of wheat disease


   Introduction  
It is a major disease of wheat and is found in all the wheat-growing plains in India as well as in the mountains.


 In 1947, black rust of wheat disease was generated in a plant epidemic in Madhya Pradesh and adjoining states, due to which about 2 million tonnes of wheat disease was destroyed and famine occurred.

Similarly, in 1971 - 72, wheat disease brown rust in Western, India was generated and about 10 lakh tonnes of wheat disease was destroyed.

 In the next season, this disease arose in the pandemic form in the mid-March in the middle of March in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh and it failed completely welfare gold by giving high yielding wheat disease of 'Green Revolution'.

However, the introduction of new dwarf Mexican varieties of wheat disease in India is now reducing losses by rust diseases, as rust has less effect on them than older varieties. 

 But there is no doubt that even in these varieties, wheat loss by 8 to 10 percent is lost by the rust, which is worth about 40 crores.  These rust are of the following three types:

 ( i ) Black or Stem Rust of Wheat disease

  This disease is found in India on the wheat crops at an altitude of up to 10,000 feet on plains and mountains.  In northern India, it is produced in March and in southern India in November - December.

 Casual organism or Disease factor

This rust produces fungi called Puccinia graminis var. tritici

 Symptoms of black rust of Wheat disease

 Early symptoms of this disease appear as small brown spots or pustules on the stem, rheumatism, foliage, lower surface of the leaves and stalks. 

 These explosions are actually uredinioides, also known as uredinium.

Gradually, these spheres become dark brown in the form of large lesions, and finally, they become black in color.  It is called black colored sputum. 

 Plants suffering from this disease decrease in height and leaves are also reduced and grains in earrings become shrunken and light in weight.

  In the acute stage of the disease, grains do not form in the earrings and the husk also becomes brittle after drying.

( ii )  Brown or Leaf Rust of Wheat disease


 Casual organism or Disease Factor
  It is caused by the fungus Puccinia recondita.  In northern and eastern India, this rust appears in the month of January.

 Symptoms of brown rust of wheat disease

 The first symptoms of this disease appear in the form of very small, circular, light orange-colored ureidinoides scattered irregularly on the surface of the leaves.  

Initially, this uredinophyte forms on the upper surface of the leaf and later on both surfaces and turns brown when mature.  Sometimes it also forms on the foliage and stem.

 Initially, they are covered with the epidermis of the leaf, which soon bursts and the uredinobioblasts disintegrate into the atmosphere as a brown powder.

 At the end of the disease, tilium or heterotrophs are formed, which can develop into uredinophytes.  Trilliums are small, oval to linear, straight brown or black in color, and covered with epidermis.

 The death of infected plants occurs before they mature and due to hindering photosynthesis, the grains in the earrings become small and contracted.  

In the event of a severe outbreak of the disease, the plants remain half in size and their root system is not developed.

( iii ) Yellow or Stripe Rust of wheat disease


 Casual organism or Disease Factor

The disease is caused by a fungus called Puccinia striiformis.

 Symptoms of yellow rust of wheat disease

In the beginning, it attacks the leaves, but later on the Vritta, Tushanipatra, Foliage, Sinkur, and grains.  

Small, oval, bright yellow-colored uredinioides are formed on the leaves such as pinheads, which form lines in the middle of the leaf veins.

Later, below the leaf epidermis, the mandibles are formed in blackened talium lines or broad columns, which are always covered by a flat black crust. 

 Leaves of diseased plants ripen quickly and their root system remains underdeveloped, as excessive infection on the leaves hinders the transfer of food they make.

 Management:

1. All three wheat rust diseases can be prevented by spraying fungicides such as Dithane Z-78, Dithane M-45 or Dithane S-31.  2.5 kg of these fungicides are dissolved in 1000 liters of water and sprayed 3 to 5 per hectare.  

All-round fungicide RH124 (RH-124) can be controlled once in the soil by irrigation water or by spraying 300mL (active ingredient) / hectare on the crop, while brown rust of wheat can be controlled. 

 And by spraying one or two of 1 kg (active ingredient) / ha, yellow rust can be prevented by Pyracarboild.

2. The most beneficial and practical method of controlling rust diseases is to grow anti-disease varieties.  Sonalika variety of wheat is resistant to brown or leaf rust. 

 Varieties such as S0331, white Lerma, and Lerma Rojo are recommended for the peninsula and central India, where black rust is the main problem.

  A Tribune wheat variety HD 1941 is also anti-disease and has an average yield of 5-8 tonnes per hectare.

 Some other improved varieties of wheat such as 

Sujata, Malvika, Arjun or HD2009 (Arjun or HD 2009), HD 2122, HD 2135, HD 2160, HD 2177, HD 1999, HD 2204, HD 4530, HD 4502, UP 301, U.P. 310, U.P. 319, K. 7410, H.U.W. 12, I.P.W. 77, HW 657, VL 421, WL 1562, WL 711, DWL 5023, Malaviya Wheat 55, KSML 3, etc. are anti-pathogenic for all three rust.

3. If the wheat crop is sown in combination with other suitable crops, the effect of the disease is reduced to some extent, because by doing this, the number of spores decreases as the pathogen surface area is reduced for the rust.

In this way, the spread of disease is reduced due to a decrease in investment for the second infection.

  4. Sowing of wheat early reduces the attack of the rust on the crop, because the crop is ripe by the time of the rust attack and the plants are also very strong to resist infection by that time.

5. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers increase the susceptibility to rust in plants, while potash has the opposite effect.  

If the nitrogen-phosphorus-potash ratio (N, P. K) ratio of the wheat-bearing cultivar variety is reduced by some nitrogen, the effect of the rust is reduced.

  2. Loose Smut of wheat disease
  Introduction  

It is a major disease of wheat and is found in all the wheat-growing plains in India as well as in the mountains.
  Although the disease is getting less and less productive in the last few years, up to 30 percent of the wheat earrings are destroyed in some fields by it.

 Casual organism or Disease Factor

 The disease is caused by a fungus called Ustilago Muda var. tritici. 

Symptoms of loose smut of wheat disease

Symptoms of this disease are seen only when the plant leaves Bali.  All the earrings of diseased plants, except the Secure, turn into a black powdery group (cond spore). 

 Initially, this black powder group is covered by a delicate gray membrane, which soon bursts, and groups of condensed spores fly into the atmosphere.


Only the naked middle circle remains after the condom spores fly away.  


Normally condensed earrings come out a little earlier than healthy earrings.  It is an endocardial disease and its causative fungus, in the form of dormant kabala, in the embryos of infected grains, is putative.

Management  :

1. Always sow certified seeds.

2. Dry seed treatment should be done on the basis of 2-5 g / kg seed by all Systemic fungicides such as plant wax, vitavact or benlet, etc.

3. The disease can also be controlled by treating the seeds with the help of antipathy. 

 Generally in this method, after soaking the seeds in cold water for 4 hours in the last week of May or first week of June from 8 am to 12 noon in the sunlight for 4 hours on the floor of a porous cement in a thin base, or on the ground, raw Drying is done on the floor. 

 Thus by treating the seeds, the latent fungus hidden within the seeds dies.

4. Regularly precautioning and destroying the rooting plants at the time of planting the earrings out of the plants can also help in preventing the spread of the pathogen. 

 Condensed earrings should be broken by covering with a polythene bag and carefully dipped in a tin filled with kerosene and collected and burnt.  By doing this, the disease is not spread in healthy earrings.

5. Exposed wheat germ varieties like Kalyan 227, PV 18, WG 307, C 302, WL 1562, DWL5023, etc. should be grown.

 3. Hill Bunt of wheat disease

  Causal organism or Disease Factor 

It is a major disease of wheat and is more common in areas with cold climate.  This disease is caused by the fungi Tilletia caries and T. foetida.

Symptoms of hill bunt of wheat disease

 Symptoms of the disease do not appear on the plants before the earrings emerge.  In general, infected plants remain small and their root system is very poorly developed.

Disease-bearing plants mature a little earlier than healthy plants, and their earrings turn blue-green, while the earrings of healthy plants are yellow-green.  Patient earrings are narrower and longer than healthy earrings and their contents turn into a black group of spores.

On pressing the patient earrings, one of them has a bad odor like typical rotten fish.  At the time of threshing in the barn, spore balls burst and the spores stick to the surface of healthy seeds and contaminate them.  Spores also survive in soil.


Management  :

1. Dry seed treatment should be done at the rate of 2 g / kg of seeds by one percent organic pesticide fungicides such as Agrosan GN, Ceresana, etc.
 2.  Soil infection can be prevented by a  3-year crop cycle.
 3.  Anti-disease varieties such as S-227 should be sown. 


4. Karnal Bunt of wheat disease


  Introduction   

The disease is found in Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, North Madhya Pradesh, parts of Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, western districts of Uttar Pradesh and Junagadh in Gujarat.  

Karnal Bunt has been called wheat cancer.  In Punjab in 1941, the disease was epidemic in the form of C 591.  Even in the season of 1980 - 81, this disease has caused a lot of damage in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.

 Causal organism or Disease Factor 

 The disease produces a fungus called Neovossia indica.  The symptoms of the disease do not appear until the rash has formed in the earrings. 

 Not all earrings of a diseased plant get an infection and only a few grains are split in an infected earring.

  The grains usually turn into a partially black powder group, which is formed from spores.  Along with being seed-borne, this disease is also soilless.


Management:

 1. Always buy certified seeds from a reliable source.
 2.  The seedbed input can be eliminated by treating 2.5 g / kg seed by fungicides such as Vitavax, Benlet, Bavistin, Ceresana, Agrosan GN, and Thiram.
 3.  The disease is completely controlled by spraying only one foliar spray of one million parts water and 500 parts plant wax and oriophenjin solution on very small plants.
 4.  Wheat bunt resistant varieties like - W. L 1562, D. W.  L 5023 should be sown.


   5. Alternaria Leaf Blight  of wheat disease

 Causal organism or Disease Factor 

In India, this disease is often found in all the wheat-growing areas of the country.  The disease is caused by a fungus called Alternaria triticina.  

Blight disease of wheat
                  
Symptoms of the disease can be seen on plants from 6 to 8 weeks old and in the favorable stages of the disease, they appear even more fiercely at the time of harvesting of the crop.

 Symptoms of Alternaria leaf blight of wheat disease

First, small, oval, brown spots irregularly scattered on the lower leaves of the plant are formed, which later become crooked.  Sometimes these spots surround a bright yellow enclosure. 

 Later these spots together cover most of the leaf.  In the extreme stage of the disease, infection occurs in foliage, earrings, blossom, and sinker, etc.


The fungus causing this disease is present in the form of Funguswithin the seed.  This type of infected seed is shrunken and discolored, fungi can also be present with healthy-looking seeds.  The fungus of this disease also survives in soil.

Management  :

1. Always certified seeds should be sown.  By doing this, the chances of shrinking and sowing of diseased seeds will be reduced.

 2. Soaking seeds in water for 4 hours before sowing and keeping it in hot water at 52-54 ° C for 10 minutes destroys seedling fungi.


 3.  Dry seed treatment with Vitavax or Carboxin (Carboxin 75%) at 2.6 g / kg seed.


 4.  To prevent the second spread of the disease, some fungicides, such as four sprays of Zineb (Diethane Z-78, Lonacol) or Diethane M-45 should be dissolved in 2.5 kg per 1000 liters of water per hectare.


 5.  Always anti-disease and disease-tolerant varieties like NI 747-19 and S331 etc. should be sown.


 6.  Use only the prescribed quantity of fertilizers in the crop.

6. Powdery Mildew  of Wheat  disease

 Causal organism or Disease Factor 

The disease is found in all the wheat-growing areas of northern India.  This disease produces a fungus called Erysiphe graminis var. tritici.  

First, appear as a pile of brownish-white powder on the leaves of the lacquer plant. In a favorable environment, foliage, stem, and blossom, etc. are also covered with this brown-white powder.


In earrings covered with powder, the grains are small and shrunken and in that case, the loss is very high.


 The fungus causing this disease probably survives in the soil with diseased residues of wheat in the field, which is the source of primary infection in the next season. 


 Secondary infection of the disease is caused by the conidium of fungi brought on by air.


 Management :

1. After harvesting, the diseased plant residues lying in the field should be collected and burnt.  

2.  In the field where the disease is more common, crops should be grown for about 3 years.


 3.  A mixture of 1480 grams Mancozeb or Diethane M-45 + 520 grams of Carathane should be dissolved in 1000 liters of water (per hectare) and three sprays should be done. 


 Spraying should be done at the interval of 10 to 14 days immediately after the onset of the first inflammatory disease and second and third.


 4.  Dwarf Mexican varieties of wheat such as Sharabati Sonora, Sonora-64, Chhoti Lerma, S-226 and Kalyan Sona, etc. show a normal response to the disease in the old age, so these varieties should be sown only.

7. Wheatgrass or Sehun  ( Eur Cockle of Wheat )  of wheat disease


  Causal organism or Disease Factor 

This disease is particularly found in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bihar.  This disease produces a nematode called Anguina tritici.

 Symptoms of wheatgrass disease of wheat

In the first symptoms of the disease, the base of infected plants swells slightly, and leaves become ripple. 

 Leaves of young plants can become wrinkled, noticeable, and deformed, and the stem of the shoots affected by the disease becomes long.


  Small, circular bulging areas or galls appear on some leaves affected by the disease. The disease also affects the earrings.


  Earrings emerging from diseased plants are shorter and thicker than healthy earrings and it remains green for many days. The grains of these earrings are converted into the ovarian follicles of the nematode.  


These pistils are initially bright and dark green in color, which later become very hard and dark brown or black.On breaking the plates, nematodes originate like needle threads, which start running shortly after being put in water.  


Nematode survives in pits mixed with seeds or lying in the ground and easily causes disease in the second year.


 Management :

 1. Always certified seeds should be sown.

 2.  The plates should be separated from the seeds.  Putting Pitika Misriet seeds in a solution of 5% salt causes the Pitikas to float due to being light and healthy seeds settle down.  


These plates should be filtered and separated and healthy seeds should be cleaned and dried with water and treated with Thiram @ 0.25%.


 3.  Do not sow wheat in the same field for 3 years.  Barley or oats can be grown instead.


 4.  Anti-disease varieties like - NP 908, S.  Disease can also be controlled by sowing 227, etc.


 8. Tandu or Yellow Ear Rot of Wheat disease


 Causal organism or Disease Factor 

This disease is always found along with 'Sehun' disease and produces a bacterium called Corynebacterium tritici.

  The first symptom of this disease is twisting and shrinking of the affected plants.


After this, a yellow gluten material covers the entire hair, and at the same time, the earrings, stems, and leaves of the plants stick to each other, which results in the growth of the plants. 



 The symptoms of this disease are more pronounced at the time of harvest.


Management:

Control of this disease can also be done by methods of prevention of 'Gagla or Sehun' disease.



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