Diseases of Potato and their casual organisms


Here, I am providing very useful About potato disease and its causal agent for all competitive exams. These are important for all competitive exams.

What is Diseases?

The disease is a verse or a harmful process. Thus, any factors which have the ability to affect every plant adversely are considered within the work area of plant pathology.

Here is the list of potato disease, causal organisms, symptoms, and control.

1.Late blight of potato
2. Early blight of potato
3.Black Scurf of Potato 
4.Brown Rot or Bacterial Wilt of Potato
5.Virus Diseases of Potato
(A)  Leaf Roll of Potato
(B) Potato Mosaics Disease (Potato Mosaics)
(C)  Purple Top Roll of Potato 
6. Non - Parasitic Diseases
( i ) Black Heart of Potato
( ii ) Nutritional Disorders 


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1. Late Blight of Potato 

This is a very devastating disease of potatoes. It is also found in the mountainous areas along with North India's plains. Due to this diseasepotato plants are destroyed as well as transit in the tubers and generates softening or dry thawing.


Late blight of potato

 When receiving a favorable environment, this disease arises in the pandemic form and destroys the entire crop. Ireland's famous fierce famine, which was lost in 1845 - 46, was the result of destroying the entire crop of potato by this disease. Due to this disease from 1965 to 1968, the entire crop of many areas of Brahmaputra Valley was destroyed.


This disease is also found on tomatoes. This disease is caused by Fungus Named Phytophora Infestans.


Symptoms of late blight of potato

Symptoms of this disease can appear at any time or favorable environment to come to flowers on potato plants. First of all, the disease symbols appear in the form of light yellow or smoke green spots. Initially, these spots or lesions are brown.

 After a short time, it becomes brown-black or purple-black color. When the favorable environment becomes available, the entire portion of the plants is destroyed and the entire plant can be destroyed in 1 to 4 days in the damp season.


 If the weather is dry then the affected areas of the leaf shrink some strictly.

Generally, the effect of the disease is only on the lower leaves, but soon the other part of the plant becomes a debt on such a part. 

If the bags of the leaf are inspected in the morning, then the white or gray fungus increase on the lower surface of the leaf right below the districts.

The infection of the disease is also on the tubers and it gets thawing.

 Firstly, the color of the skin of infected tubers seems to be brown in Neil Lohit and the tuber gets about 1/2 inches, but in contrast, the entire tuber wet wig in the moist environment Fungal infected tubers and diseased plants arising to this disease remain survivor in the form of potato.



Management:
1. Always should be sorted to the diseased tubers as seed.

2. After the excavation of the potato, the diseased remains of the crop should be destroyed.


3. Digging of the diseased crop should be done completely and should be drying in the field to the plants so that all the spores of the fungal present on the upper part of the plants will die and do not infect the tubers.


4. The digging of the tubers should be done in the dry season and the plants should be drying in the field. At the time of keeping the wedding in the house, they should be carefully sorted carefully
.


5. 10 to 15 sense of plants I To make the height, then do so, by doing so, the possibility of infection in the tubers decreases.


6. After digging potatoes, it is very necessary to dry before placing them in the store. The pots should be kept in the houses, ventilated and dry reserves. The optimal temperature for storage is 3.5 ° - 4.4 ° C.


7. If there is a slight rain after the heavy rain, and there is a slight potential of the disease, such as fungicidal - Jeanab (Dythen Jade - 78), It should be sprayed before 2 kilograms of amounts in 1000 liters of water. A total of 4 - 6 spraying '7 - 14 days should be done.


8. Resistance variety of Late Blight of potato- Kufri jivan, Kufri alankar (for North Western Plains), Kufri Nabin (for North Eastern Areas), Kufri jivan, Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Naveen, Kufri Moti (for Nilgiri Hills)

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2.  Early Blight of Potato 

This is a general disease of potatoes and the potato crop is the most harm. This disease is widely found in Assam, Tripura, Western Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, etc. and harms of potato crop to 20 percent.


Early blight of potato


 The outbreak of this disease is also on the other plants of Solaneasi, such as tomato, eggplant, chilies, and some wild plants. This disease is generated by fungal named Alternaria Solani.


 The symptoms of this disease are seen in the form of small,  or spots, which are later departed on the lower leaves of the plants, after 3-4 weeks of plant sowing.


Symptoms of early blight of potato

Soon it also becomes on the leaves above the spots. Along with the increase in size, the color of these spots also changes and it later becomes deep-brown black. 

If the old spots are carefully seen, they can be seen in the light color or inventive cutting. The effect of the disease also falls on potato tubers, which are formed in small and number in size and they decrease in starch. 


In the diseased plant residue in the fungal soil generated in this disease, there is a survivor in the form of a poet and the conidium by which the upcoming crop is transitioned.


  Management:

  1. After the excavation of the potato, the upper patient should be burned by collecting planting and the plants. 

2. This is a mild disease. Cornadium and poet of fungal generating this disease, suffering from suffering in the soil for 1 year to 15 months. Survives are alive on the residues, so two years of the crop - cycle should be adopted.


3. Spraying of fungicide like - Genemy (Dhethane Jade - 78, Loanakol, etc.) should be done according to 2.5 kilograms per 1000 liters of water/hectare. First spray, in North India's crop in November and in February on the spring crop.


 It should be 2 or 3 spraying and 2 or 3 on the difference of 10 - 15 days.


3. Black Scurf of Potato 

This is a prominent disease of potatoes that are widely found on the potato crop in the plains along with the hill areas of India. The invasion of this disease is often on the kind of potatoes, due to which the value of the market decreases and the properties of cooking also decrease.

The causal agent of black scurf of potato

 This disease is caused by a fungal named Rhizoctonia Solani.

Symptoms of black scurf of potato

The symptoms of this disease may appear immediately after planting infected. These days are a taller, dreaded, and brown color and due to them, the plant dies. 

This disease arises through other tubers also spread on other tubers and sticks to black sclerotium, sticking on the surface of the tubers.


 This sclerotium appears in the form of a large black crust together on the surface of the tuber. Patient plants become small and light yellow. 



   Management
  1. For seeds, always should use certified tubers and choose potatoes to plant themselves from healthy fields.

  2. Before planting potato tubers 6 % Organic Fungicide Ex - Anglol-6, Tefasan-6w, Aritan-6 Soak in 0.2 percent solution of, etc. for one minute.


3. Aritan-6 fungicide along with tuber treatment, if P.  C .  N.  B.  (Brassicol) If soil treatment is done by fungicide at the rate of 33.3 kg/ha, prevention of this disease is very good.


4. Brown Rot or Bacterial Wilt of Potato 

It is a major bacterial disease of potato, which is found in abundance in almost all potato-growing states of India - Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu, etc. 

 About 30-70 percent loss due to this disease is estimated in Kumaon and Nilgiri hills.


Symptoms of brown rot of potato

This disease also attacks other plants such as tomato, brinjal, chili, peanut, egg, banana, and many wild plants.  This disease produces a bacterium called Pseudomonas solanacearum.  An important symptom of the disease is the sudden withering of the affected plants.

 The stems and convection tissue of the aerial stem and tubers of diseased plants turn brown.  If the patient is seen cutting off the tubers produced from the plant, then a gray-white bacterial nipple (juice) comes out in their alcoholic tissues.  Many patients do not have nipples in their tubers.  The bacterium that produces the disease remains soilless as well as within the tuber.  Bacteria in the soil can survive for more than 250 days.


 Management:

1. Always use a disease-free healthy potato tuber as a seed.

2. To reduce the mild, three years of the crop, wheat, barley, soybean, lalshira grass, etc. to reduce the condemnation.


3. Diseased plant-residues and tubers should be burnt from the farm and we should not grow in the field and the weeds of Solanaceae family.


4. Selection of potatoes for seed should be done from places, where this disease has not been there.


5. Before sowing, 1 percent formalin, 0.5 percent of the blue that should be softened by StreptoCin.

5. Virus Diseases of Potato 

About 25 virus-borne disease occurs on potato crop in India. It is the potato internal disease and the fields spread quickly.

 As a result, potato seeds are awkward and the crop has huge damage. In general, this disease is found in all those areas in India, where potatoes are cultivated

.
Below are the main barriers - the major barriers found in India.
Virus Diseases of Potato

( A )  Leaf Roll of Potato


 Virus: - potato leaf mura virus or potato virus or Solenam Virus 14 (potato leafroll virus or potato virus 1 or solarnam virus 14) etc.

  This is the most fierce and very comprehensive disease of potatoes. In India, this disease is found in almost all potatoes growers and by this, it gets damaged by approximately 25-50 percent. 

The main symptoms of this disease have to turn towards the middle of the infected plants. The virus of this disease occurs from infected tubers and the second proliferation in the field is by activist insects like - Myzus Persicae etc.

(B) Potato Mosaics Disease (Potato Mosaics) 

Potato crop causes potato crop due to potato virus-borne mosaic diseases

Mozec diseases are generated from many types of viruses and each or more than one difference.

Above the potato, Mozaic disease has been found to be related to almost a dozen viruses, but in India (potato Virus X, S, Y & A), etc. 

are more important, which generate secret or dim embroiled, grumble-sized mosaics and grumble mosaics, etc.

 ( i ) Latent or Mild Mosaic 

  Viruspotato Virus X (potato Virus)
 Virus X is commonly found on potatoes in India. Different varieties of potatoes are damaged by 10-25 percent.

 It spreads very quickly with fingers and generates a hassle-to-day mosaic disease. The general symptom of this disease is that there are light and dark green chambers on the leaves of the plant and the decision of the middle of their two veins becomes a position.

 The primary instrument of the virus causing the mosaic, the patient is patient and the second spread in its field is from touching the healthy plants of the patient.

( ii ) Rugose Mosaic

 Virus  - Potato virus X and Potato virus Y-
 This mosaic disease would arise by two viruses. In India, potato viruses have been estimated to be damaged by approximately 40-89 percent.

 The specific symptoms of this mosque have to remain the dwarf of the plants and the leaves have to arise. 
The leaves of the disease suffered very little in the plants, which becomes very small.


 The transmission of the virus of this disease is done by small-scale floors and the second spread of potato virus wai is an effect from AFID MY Persetic.

 ( iii ) Crinkle Mosaic 

Virus -  ( Potato virus Y and Potato virus A )
 This mosaic disease is also generated by two viruses. Symptoms of this disease are also similar to the remedial mosaic. 

But the yellow spots are more clear on the level of fertile parts. The leaves of spots seem to be distorted and they are also crooked. 


Pills suffering from the disease become weak, which consequently the yield is very low.

 ( C )  Purple Top Roll of Potato 

 The outbreak of this disease occurs in the hill and southern plateau parts and on the spring season of the North-Western plains. 

In the yield of potato, this disease is damaged by about 40-60 percent. Until a few years ago, the scientists had the opinion that this disease arises from the virus. 


But now according to the new researchers, the cause of this disease is a mycoplasma-like microorganism.


Symptoms;

 The symptoms of this disease show on the top new leaves of the plant.
First, the leaves are hit on the basis of yellow and yellow and sometimes their folded part later becomes pink or Neil-Lohit.

 Potters from the disease remain dwarf and plants are organized in the fierce stages of the disease.


 Often, the patients of the plants are formed on the troops, and the tones of Tan are also flourished. 


On using the tubers in the form of seeds, 6 to 20 percent of the tuber and 6 to 33 percent of the diseases are produced by the specific symptoms of the disease.


 The transmission of this disease occurs by the insect called Orosius Albicinctus.


 Management:
  1. As soon as the patient plant appears in the field, they should immediately burn them and burn them.

2. While planting the potato of the seed, only a healthy one, and a half-inch diameter should be used in use.


  3. In the coldest time of the weather, the voidness seeds of potato should be generated.

  4. The following methods have recommended the following methods to get a disinvested crop of potato seeds by Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla:

  ( a ) By getting the certified seed tubers of potato from a trusted institute, their planting should be done at the beginning of the weather.

  ( b ) As soon as some patient plants appear on the farm, they should be expelled.

  ( c ) In the third or fourth week of September, cut the upper green parts of the plant and leave the tubers to be mature in the land. By doing so, the yield may decrease, but the potatoes will be obtained without void.

   ( d )  Aphid (Mahu) spreads the insect virus. Therefore, for the control of these insects, such as a contrary insecticide - 16 kg of Thimet Grain. According to per hectic. The potato should be used in the land at the time of sowing. 

In addition to this, to prevent the spread of recurring bombs spread by these insects, metasistox or thyodon (0.1%) or patterns, etc. should be sprayed on 15 days.
   

 6 . ( Non - Parasitic Diseases ) 

 This disease of plants that are generated by the atmospheric factors that are not generated by an external pathogenic or parasite is called astravenous or unnoticed diseases

The spread of these diseases is not in a healthy plant with the patient plant. In fact, this type of disease is generated by some disorder coming in the back of the plant by adverse environmental conditions.

( i ) Black Heart of Potato 

In the potato, this disease arises especially in storage when the temperature is very high and the decrease in the decrease.

 This disease is also caused by traffic in potatoes. His middle part is black on cutting the killings of the stored potato or instantly cutting the tubers, their mid-white color changes.


The middle part of these tubers is pink, then brown, and later dark brown and end falls black. This disease is generated more in large tubers than small tubers. 


Due to this black color generation in potatoes is said to be a change in physician procedures. Due to some measurements such as oxidation on tyrosine such as tyrosine (tyrosine), such as tyrosine, etc.


In the inner parts of the tubers where oxygen is not available in adequate quantity, there is a stimulating due to respiratory action sub-oxidation. Because of which part of the cells dies, there is no effect on the enzyme present in these cells.


 This excitation is high at high temperatures. If the soil temperature increases by 90 ° F, then this disease occurs in that condition even


Management: 

In order to prevent this disease in the pots, the storage of tubers should not be used in the short temperatures of proper air transmission and the temperature of the warehouses and baffles should not exceed 90f. Storage of potatoes should always be done in cold temperatures.

 ( ii ) Nutritional Disorders 

  The problem of nutrition and disorder in potato is also prominent. This problem is high in places, where there is a lack of nutrients or excess in soil. Symptoms of nutrition elements in potatoes like - lack of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.

Symptoms

 It is normal to lack nitrogen normally and the color of the potatoes leaves in its neighborhood becomes painful green.

 Often, the growth of plants stops due to the lack of phosphorus in potatoes and it is mainly only after the formation of tubers. 


Due to the lack of potassium, the color of the leaves in the potato plants becomes unusually deep green and the surface of the new leaf becomes more cracked.


 Apart from this, old leaves fall into yellow and blacks are black on boiling such plants. Similarly, symptoms of magnesium lack of magnesium on potato plants also appear. 


The symptoms of its deficiency are first arising on the lower leaves of the plant and later on the upper leaves


. Due to the assessment of soluble manganese salts in acidic soils, the plants remain smaller than usual, and the higher strips on the tones and the higher chests on the surface of the tones.

   Management: 

Nutritious disorders get away from getting proper nutrition and spraying on the leaves. But it is very necessary that soil testing should be done before planting potatoes in the field.

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