what is Ecology and Ecosystem | Types,Components,Factors

If you really want to know about ecology and ecosystem then definitely read this post to know more. 
Here you will know what is ecology?  scope and types of ecology and also about what is an ecosystem? biotic and abiotic factors, types and examples of the ecosystem.

What is ecology?

The term 'ecology' was first proposed (H • Reiter, 1885). The branch of botanology, under which the mutual relations are studied in plants and their circumstances or environment, is called plant ecology.

types of ecology

Click here to know about the biosphere

Some Important definitions of ecology 

"The study of animals and plants in relation to their environment is called ecology."
(E. Warming 1895)
E. warming, ecologist
                                                                                             (  E. Warming )

1The study of the relationship between organisms and their environments is called ecology.
(Ernest Haeckel, 1869)
ecologist,Ecology,Ernest Haeckel

                      (Ernest Haeckel)

2. Ecology is a science of ecosystems or totality of reciprocal interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings.
(Clark, M. E. 1973)

3. "Ecology is the science of organisms in relation to their total environment and interrelationship of organisms interspecifically and between themselves"    (Fraser Darling 1963)

Types of ecology or Branches of ecolog

. Based on Habitat -- Under this

  •  Freshwater Ecology,

  •  Grassland Ecology

  •  Forest Ecology,
  • Desert Ecology,

  •  Marine Ecology,

  •  Cropland Ecology etc comes under based on habitat.

2. Based on Taxonomic Affinities

Based on ethnic have been made in 2 parts.

(i) Autoecology

(ii) Synecology

Scope of Ecology and Aims  

(1) The study of the local and geographical distribution and their diversity and its multiplicity. The underlying of organisms. Niketan Bio community is studied.

(2) The organization community is included in the transition in the stirring. Under this, the fifth change is financially used.

(3) The mutual relations of the cultivation of population and communities are studied.

(4) The study of natural conditions and the behavior of organisms and optimization is studied.

(5) Bio-structure and verb are described under the physical environment.

(6) The organizations of the work of the use of productivity and their proper use under the various ecosystem.

Example of Ecology

  • Population ecology
  • Niche construction
  • Human ecology

Also Read: What is paddy


"A functional system formed by communities and their environment is known as an ecosystem."

 Definition of Ecosystem

1.  "Ecology is, in a broader sense, the study of ecosystems." (Misra, 1970)

2. "Ecosystem is the functional unit of nature."

3. "An ecosystem is the basic functional unit of organisms and their environment, interacting with each other and within their own components."       (E.P. Odum,1971)

Biotic And  Abiotic Factors of ecosystem

The purpose of ecology is to know the distribution of biotic and abiotic factors of living and non-living things in the environment. 
The Biotic and abiotic factors include the living and non-living things and their interaction with the environment.

Components of an Ecosystem

1.Biotic components
2. Abiotic components

 Biotic components

The basis of mutual relations of nutrition Any ecosystem that is divided into three parts.

A) Producers 

There are green tree-plants and all the vegetation, they make their own food by putting photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. They are called producers or primary producers.

B) Consumers

Those who are directly dependent on vegetation or indirectly for their food, they come all the kinds of creatures animal. that is divided into three parts.

i) Primary consumers
Those who are directly dependent on vegetation for their food.

ii) Secondary consumers

 In it, they come to the Carnivorous that eat vegetarian organisms.
Ex - beetles, birds, lizards, crickets, fish, etc.

ii) Tertiary consumers

Under which other Carnivorous eat, they come to the Carnivorous.
Ex. Snake, frogs eat.

iv) Top carnivores

Under this category, all those animals that can kill and eat carnivores of all classes can eat them but no other animals can eat them. 
Ex - lions, panther, shark fishes, crocodiles, owls, hawk, heron, etc.

C) Decomposers

  • Under this category, saprophytic bacteria, fungi, etc., come from the plants and animals and animals and decay and decompose dead organic matter into micro and simple organic and inorganic compounds.

  • They change which either disintegrates and goes into the abiotic environment or is used by decomposition.  

  • This is an important process that results in the complex organic matter being decomposed and broken down into simple Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, phosphorus, Ca, Mg.  Fe etc. are converted into elements.

  • These elements are released in the earth or in the atmosphere, by which the plants and plants make food and body.  This process continues continuously in nature and there is a cyclical use of inorganic elements.

 Abiotic components
 Abiotic components are all non-living environments under abiotic or abiotic conditions that control biological components. It can be classified into three parts.

i) Climate or physical components

ii) Inorganic components
iii) Organic components

i) Climatic Or Physical components  Around the air, light, water, humidity, heat, etc. that structures the climate or the material component structure. Solar energy is the main physical component. 

Chlorophyll present in green plants, such as the energy-sacrification process by collecting the material - as chemical energy.

ii) Inorganic components Instrument, gases like mineral salts, Mn, P, Ca, Mg and Hydrogen, Carbon dioxide, Oxygen, Nitrogen are included in carbon-free. These are all nutritious orders or raw materials. Which is often found in the cyclic state.

iii) Organic components 
 Organic substitutes such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid generated by dead position, and secondary last product generated from their decomposition, and the unit of its deposit. These are obtained at the end of the Creatures.

The dead powers are used in the inorganic elements, which consequences the acquisition of the bacteria and fungal.

Also read: where most production in the world.

Types Of Ecosystem

Here is  some examples of Ecosystem

  •  'Pond' Study of Pond Ecosystem

 A pond can be studied to understand the ecological system very well.  With the help of lattice and long logs, plants and animals are collected in small bags of polythene from the following parts of the pond.

  •  Phyto and zooplankton floating in the water.
  •  Animals and plants living in water-saturated land along the banks of the pond.
  •  Submerged plants and animals present at some depth in the pond.
  • The soil in the foothills of the pond and animals and plants living in it.

In the laboratory, plants and animals are classified into the following classes and they are sequentially studied.

(A) Biotic components

(B) Abiotic Components

(A) Biotic Components-

Producers - All green plants

(a) Submerged plants  

eg Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Utricularia, Ceratophyllum.

(b) Floating plants
(i) Free floating plants  
 Pistia,  Azola (Azolla), Lema (Lemma), Volfia (Wolffia), Ikornia (Eichhormia), Salvinia (Salvinia), Spairodela (Spirodella)

(ii) Fixed floating plants

 Trapa, Jussiaea, Nymphaea.

(c) Amphibious plants 
Polygonum, Typha, Ranunculus, Aquatic grass.

(d) Phytoplankton 
Microscopic plants, algae Diatoms, green algae. Blue algae. Blue-green algae etc.  

(2) Consumers 

(a) Primary consumers 
Herbivores, Zooplankton, Microscopic animals, suspended in water, Bottom - dwellers (Mollusca, larvae of insects), Tadpole larvae of frogs, small fishes.

(b) Secondary consumers - Frogs, big fish, (Big fishes), Water snakes, (Crabs), Various insects.

(c) tertiary consumers - Big Fish (Big fishes).  Stork, Heron, Duck, and Gangly.  

(d) Decomposers - saprophytic fungi & bacteria, sonent).

(B) Abiotic Components

Nutrients for organisms live in water in a solid and solid-state.  These are mainly oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, iron, zinc magnesium, amino acids, fatty acids, etc. 

  •    Marine Ecosystem

 Marine Ecosystem

(A) Biotic Components 

(1) producers 
 Water Planks, Diaoms, Dynoms and Dynoffinetias, Light Flowing Weeds, Green, Brown and Red Algae). All these are produced in all productive Photic Zone

(2) Consumers

(i) First category consumer vegetarian eg zooplankton eg copepods, arrow worms, crustaceans, coral, mollusks, sea cucumbers, sea lilies, sponges, snails, clams, jellyfish, etc.

(ii) second-class consumer 

Naked fishes such as Mackerel, Haring, Shad, Shark, etc.

(iii) third-class consumer

Naked fish eg Cod, Haddock, Halibut, etc., which is called Betom Feeders and the second class consumer.

(Iv) Around the casualty 

Main bacteria.

(B) Abiotic Components

  • Abiotic components are not purely in the context of the oceanic ecosystem pond and the ecological system of the lake ecotheque. 
  • Still, the overall ecosystem does not resort to the emotional system of the pond and lake ecotheque. Still, the water is changed in the immigration and the midnight of the nutrient ecosystem.
  • The overall water is more salt, the water is done in the next half of the ocean system and the mobility of water.
  • The marine water is more salt and it is 35 percent of the surgery of the vessel, 35.7% sodium chloride, remaining calcium, magnesium, and potions, etc.).

  •  The Cropland Ecosystem 

 The ecosystem of cropped fields is a man-made ecosystem.  Human beings have been making all possible changes in this ecosystem with the help of science and technological development, so that they can get more food, cloth, timber, and other beneficial substances. 

cropland ecosystem

(A) Biotic Components-

(i) Producers 

Major crops - species like Triticum aestivum, Maize (Zea mays), Paddy (Oryza sativa), Sugarcane (Saccharum offcinanam), G. Hordeum vulgare  ), Tomato (Lycopersicum _ escalentium), Solanum tuberosum, and the major weed species that grow with them, such as - Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, reindeer  (Convolvulus arvensis), Melilotus indica, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia longifolia, Bathopa (Chenopodium album), etc. 

(ii) Primary consumers 

 herbivores;  Such as pests (eg. Thrips, aphids, bugs, ants, etc.), rats, rabbits, birds and humans. 

(iii) Secondary consumers 

 like frogs, snakes, etc. - carnivores (carnivores), etc. 

(iv) Tertiary consumers are the highest carnivorous creatures such as a hawk.  Eagle etc.

(v) Decomposers and transformers 

Bacteria and fungi.  Major bacteria include Bacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, etc. and in fungi Agaricus, Mucor, Aspergillus, Alternaria, etc.

 (B) Abiotic components
Inorganic and soils located in soil and atmosphere.

  • The Grassland Ecosystem

 The Grassland Ecosystem covers about 19% of the entire area of ​​the world.  Grasslands are often spread in areas of Vis where the average annual rainfall is 25 - 75 cm.  is.  

The main regions of the world where the nearby plains are found are Canada, the United States of America, Southern Argentina, Brazil, South Asia, and Central Asia, etc.

The main region in India is the summit of the Nilgiri Mountains.  Human activities are bent on destroying grasslands all over the world and transforming them into agricultural land at a rapid pace. 

Main Components

(A) Biotic Components

(i) Producers

 main grasses such as Cynodon, Setaria, Dichanthium, Digitaria, etc. In addition, various plants and trees of different sizes and types are also found.

(II) The Primary Consumers 

The main herbivores are mammals, mammals, and pests. Cows, rabbits, and sheep - goats are prominent in mammalian animals. Among the insects is Leptocorisa, Dysdercus, Cicindella, Coccinella. Macro terms termites and sparrows.  Pheasant, Chakor, and Cook  There is a chunk, etc. 

(iii) Secondary Consumers 

Under this category are carnivorous insects.  Eg - (praying mantis), beetles, crickets, etc.  Apart from this, there are frogs and toads, foxes, lizards, jackals, etc. 

(iv) Tertiary Consumers 

hawk, eagle in the top carnivores.  (eagle) like bird. 

(v) Decomposers and Transformers  After death, all the above trophic levels of organisms decompose by saprobes, fungi, bacteria, protozoa, and moths.  Which are more in number in the land.  

  • The Forest Ecosystem

  Hanson (1962) defined the forest as "a cluster of many plants growing in the context of different types of plants." (A stand of trees growing close  together with associated plants of various kinds.) 
The following four types of forests are found in India, due to the combined effects of temperature, water, soil, which cover 23% of the total area.

forest ecosystem

1. Tropical forest 

Tropical forests are found prominently in their country.  They are of two types
(A) Tropical moist forests
(B) Tropical dry forests

(A) Tropical moist forests 

 Tropical moist forests, depending on humidity, they are divided into three verticals.  Is classified as

 (i) Tropical moist evergreen forests

(ii) Tropical moist semi-evergreen forests
(iii)  Tropical moist deciduous forests 

(B) Tropical dry forest

(i) Tropical dry evergreen forests
(ii) Tropical dry deciduous forests
(iii) Tropical thorny forests

 (2) Sub-tropical forests 

These forests are found in areas where there is very good rainfall but there is no special difference in the temperature of summer and autumn.  Autumn is dry.  
They are found at 1500 feet in the south and 1800 meters in the north.  From the perspective of composition, they are very close to the tropical and temperate forests.  They have three sub-classes
(i) Wet hill forests. 
(ii) Dry evergreen forests. 
(iii) Pine forests

  • The Desert Ecosystem 

This ecological system is spread over an area of ​​25% of the global globe and its presence is usually found in areas where the annual rainfall is less than 25 cm on average.  

Important deserts are Monoran, Sahara, and Thar which are located in America, North Africa, and India respectively.  The middle part of Australia is desert.  The Thar Desert of India is about one lakh sq km.  Spread over the area. 

 Due to high temperatures and low rainfall, vegetation does not show growth.  In the name of vegetation, there are thorny shrubs or only small plants can grow.  This system is made up of the following main components

desert ecosystem

(A) Biotic Components

1) Producers 

Mainly found in thorn bushes and cactus plants.  In green land, where water is found, grass, palm (Butea), Acacia arabica, Yucca.  

Populus euphratica, Prosopis spicegera.  Salvadora oleoides, Agave, Aloe, Ruscus.  Casuarina, Tamarix dioica, Caparris, Ziziphus, Dalbergia sissoo.  Alhagi.  Calotropis Opuntia, Euphorbia, etc. are available.

  One-year and short-lived species such as Argemone Mexicana, Carthamus, Solanum nigrum Chenopodium albums, etc. grow in the rainy season. 

(2) Consumer

(i) First-class consumer (vegetarian) 

pest, sheep - goat, camel (desert ship), rat, some bird, etc.

(ii) Second class consumer (Carnivorous)  

(reptiles); Like - Lizards, Serpent, Chamelen etc.

(iii) Third category Consumer (Survival Nearest) - Vulture

(iv) Decomposers - Mainly fungi and bacteria.

(B) Abiotic Components 

Organic and Inorganic substitutes; such as co2, h2o, o2, N, P. Ca, amino acids, bungled acids, sugars, lipids, etc. The water and heating in the deserted area. 

Participate as the main semantic factor. The irrigation can be changed as a useful agricultural land through irrigation. This year, such use is going on in Rajasthan.


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