What is Biosphere | Definition, components, examples

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What is Biosphere?

The biosphere, hydrosphere, and all the part of the atmosphere where life is present is called the biosphereThus biosphere refers to all the places where life is found in some form or the other.

you must read also about ecology & ecosystem

What is the definition of the Biosphere ?

According to (J. Tivy-1982)
  "That part of the living world or biosphere of the earth is that part of the earth that contains living organisms."

According to (A N Strahler and A H Strahler -1976),   

" The entire living organisms of the Earth and the environment in which organisms join together form biospheres, together form biospheres. "

Biosphere Facts

"By studying the Earth in detail, it is clear that the study of the biosphere is called the study of the environment.


  • Although the organisms extend from the atmosphere to the deepest depths of the atmosphere, most of the organism extends a few meters above the surface of the earth and some meter is up to the bottom. 
  • The biosphere is limited to a height of 10,000 meters above the Earth's surface and about 8000 meters above sea level and 250 meters above the Earth's surface.
  • "The biosphere is a very wide area in which many types of organisms grow and grow and die rotting."
  • Most organisms found in nature have a life adapted to specific types of environments.
  • Each tree plant and fauna combine with other plant and animal species to form a bio-communityThis community affects all its members. 
  • In addition, the nutrition of the lives of a particular caste is balanced in the context of the entire biosphere.

In other words, we can say that the biosphere is actually a type of biosystem based on the cyclic flow of energy and nutrients.

Components Of Biosphere

The biosphere can be divided into 3 main components.

(1. Hydrosphere or water components

About two-thirds of the planet is covered with water.

Hydrosphere Definition

The part covered with water is called hydrosphere

Hydrosphere Facts

According to Crummel, water is found on 70.8% of the planet and 29.2% of the site is found.

The area of ​​the entire planet is 50.995 million square kilometers, of which water is spread over 30.105 million square kilometers and the site is spread over 14.889 crore square kilometers. 


In terms of size and position, the hydrosphere can be divided into oceans, seas between continents, small enclosed seas, and bays


There is so much water in all of these that it is also called the water hemisphere.



  • The water component consists of three sub-components.
  1. Surface water
  2. Groundwater
  3. Oceanic water
  • Water is a component of both the biosphere and atmosphere
  • The groundwater evaporates by heat and reaches the atmosphere in the form of water vapor which cools to the higher altitude and turns into a cloud
  • This water present in the form of clouds comes to the earth by rain. Water in the mountains becomes fiercely snow. 

Thus, there is a cyclic flow in the nature of water, which is called the water cycle or hydrological cycle.

2. Lithosphere or lithospheric Components 

Lithosphere Facts

  • The lithosphere is also called the rock face

  • It is a solid part of the earth under which there is a variety of rough soil, sub-soil, different types of rocks that together form a crust. 

  • It also includes various types of metals
  • In terms of life, the subdivision of the lithosphere is more important and favorable. 
  • Various types of oceans and seas cover 78.8% of the earth. 
  • Thus, only 29.2% of the earth is found in islands and the Continent, which has an area of ​​57 crores 50 lakh square miles

lithosphere composition 

The composition of the lithosphere or terrestrial component is as follows -
1. Element - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Iron, Silica, etc. 
2. Minerals - feldspar, dolomite, elite, hematite, etc. 
3. Shell - igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rock. 
4. Soil - jalodha, laterite, parcel, loam, etc. 
5. Small scale form - alluvial plain, sandcastle, delta, etc. 
6. Medieval form - mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc. 
7. Continent of continent.

Through the lithosphere, various types of organisms not only supply mineral material but also create sandy shapes for flora and fauna living inside the land. 


Like the water cycle in nature, there is a cyclic circulation of the mineral elements of the earth. 

One process of this cyclic circulation is also called plate deformation.

As a result of meteorological forces, the rocks decompose and disintegrate into large stones, small stones, gravels, sand particles, and finally soil particles. 


In addition to physical, chemical weathering, biological forces also participate in this process.

3. Atmosphere or Atmospheric Components

Atmosphere Definition
    "The cover of the air in the sky that surrounds the terrain and the water system is called the atmosphere."

In fact, the atmosphere is a mixture of different types of gases. 


The atmosphere is formed in different layers of air, on the basis of which Krishna can be divided into inscribed parts.


Atmosphere Layers

Here are some different types of atmosphere layers-

(A). Troposphere Layer

It is also called the Transformation Board

Troposphere Definition

"The lowest part of the atmosphere, whose height is 12 km from the ground, is called the troposphere. "

Troposphere Facts

  • In this part, water vapor, clouds, dust, smoke are more than other parts. 

  • This is the reason that this part varies greatly in the weather. Thunderstorms, hurricanes, fog, hail, cloudburst, thunder, electric light, etc. 
  • seasonal events occur in the troposphere. 
  • Tolerant winds move in this part. 
  • The amount of carbon dioxide is the highest. 
  • The living beings on the ground are related to this part. 
  • A mixture of heavy gases is also found in this section.

(B). Tropopause Layer

One and a half km pearl layer of troposphere and stratosphere is called the troposphere.

Tropopause Facts  

  • Each type of seasonal change is postponed in this part. 

  • In fact, this division can be considered as a divisor of the troposphere and stratosphere. 

  • It is a divisional zone.


(C). Stratosphere Layer

The stratosphere is the upper part of the troposphere, its average elevation is stated to be 25 to 30 km whereas some people say its upper limit is 80 km


Stratosphere Definition

 "There is no change of weather in the stratosphere either, even if it happens very rarely, this part is called the stratosphere. "

Stratosphere Facts

  • In the stratosphere, there is no amount of water vapor, dust particles, and clouds at all. 

  • The pressure is very lowThe height of this division changes according to the season and is devoid of seasonal movements. 
  • But faint-horizontal winds keep moving. 
  • There is often a lack of fog, hail, storm, thundering, electric light, etc. in this part.

(D). Ozonosphere Layer

The stratosphere consists of a zone of ozone gas between 15 and 35 kilometers at the bottom




Ozonosphere Facts

  • Due to the excess of ozone gas, it is called the ozone system
  • Ozone has three atoms of oxygen

  • Ozone is highly valued in the atmosphere because it serves as a defense cover

  • Due to this coating, the sun's ultraviolet rays do not reach the surface of the alteration system and the Earth because this gas absorbs ultraviolet rays. 

  • In fact, ozone gas originates due to the dissolution of oxygen gas by ultraviolet rays. 


In the absence of an ozonosphere, ultraviolet rays can reach the ground due to which the temperature can be so high that no type of organism can live on the surface.


(E). Ionosphere Layer

The portion of the atmosphere that is 80 to 640 kilometers in height from the ground is called the ionosphere

Ionosphere Facts

  • Due to the abundance of ultraviolet rays and solar radiation in this system, atmospheric gases remain in an ionized state

  • This is why this mantle is called the ion circleAn ion is the lowest part of the thermosphere

  • Small waves of radio are reflected by this division. 

If the ion system had not been in place, the radio waves would not have come to the ground floor and would have reached the unlimited height in the sky.

(F). Exosphere Layer

It is the topmost part of the atmosphere which extends over 640 kilometers and special knowledge has not been received about this division.

Exosphere Facts

  • After studying various parts of the atmosphere, it is concluded that the highest air cares and meteorological changes occur in the troposphere itself.

  • Several types of gases are found in the atmosphere, which contains oxygen (20.94%), and nitrogen (78.08%). 

  • The remaining part consists of gases such as organ (0.034%), carbon dioxide (0.03%), neon, helium, krypton, xenon, hydrogen.

  • In green plants, the carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis and the oxygen required for the respiration of all types of organisms is derived from a mixture of atmospheric gases. 
  • Nitrogen is an important gas for living organisms. 
Thus, it is clear that the atmosphere is a huge museum of essential elements for living beings because many of their life-useful activities are based on these different components of the atmosphere.



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